Broadband Internet Information


How Peer to Peer (P2P) Works


Peer to Peer (P2P) Technology- How it works:

Ever wondered how P2P works? This guide will run down most of the major P2P services and how they work. Peer to Peer technology lets people share files over a network on the internet. Most people now use what is known as the second generation of P2P, which is unlike its predecessors like such as Napter, the second generation has no centralized server, making it harder for it to shut down.

How first generation P2P services worked:

A connection is established by a peer finding another peer to connect to. Each peer exchanges active peer and their addresses. When a connection has been established, the user can then search for files. When a search has been submitted, it connects to all nodes on its connection list. The results are then displayed and a connection is made.

How second generation P2P services worked:

Gnutella2: Hubs are used to quickly search for files, eliminating the original "find peer and search" method. Instead, they store a list of files on all the "Leaves" (A peer) that are connected to it, thus dramatically reducing search time. Advantages: Unlike Napster, if a hub crashes, it's network stays alive. Disadvantages: Doesn't make network any more durable than the first generation of P2P. Gnutella2: www.gnutella.com

FastTrack: Programs such as Kazaa and iMesh use the FastTrack protocol. Normal peers connect to a supernode which acts jsut like a hub. Supernodes also connect to other supernodes, allowing search requests to move through the network very quickly. Peers then establish a direct connection to a client after a file has been found. Advantages: Any client can become a supernode. Disadvantages: Corruption of files occur. Clients include: Kazaa (www.kazaa.com), iMesh (www.imesh.com)

BitTorrent: .torrent files are used to store information about the file being shared. Once a torrent file is opened, the client connects to the tracker which tells the client where the file is located and what other peers/seeders there are. BitTorrent works by chunks of small files being transferred (even through multiple connections), while you are downloading. The files are checked for corruption as the download continues. Leechers are people who download and don't upload, and are highly frowned upon on some sites, disallowing them from downloading any further. Advantages: Very fast for popular, new files. Disadvantages: Trackers are unreliable and if it goes down, the file is lost. Clients include: Azureus (www.azureus.com), Shareaza (www.shareaza.com).

EDonkey Network: Edonkey runs on the same principle as first generation P2P, only anybody can become a server. Clients communicate with the server to download files, and random chunks can be downloaded in any order then put together in the end. Advantages: No file corruption, leech penalization. Disadvantages: It can penalize users unfairly. EDonkey: www.edonkey2000.com

Infinitive!, Copyright 2005. All Rights Reserved.

Infinitive! http://www.infinate.x10hosting.com This article may be reproduced so long as your remain a link down the bottom. -Admin, Nigel.


MORE RESOURCES:
Broadband getting faster  Komando

The internet is getting faster due to some technological innovations.


State's lack of rural broadband may be underestimated  Meadville Tribune

HARRISBURG — A Penn State study of broadband access across the state, due out in January, will likely demonstrate that federal data about availability of ...


Editorial: Broadband Providers Overstate Coverage  Valley News

Can you hear us now? We have some shocking news. It appears the companies that provide cellphone and high-speed internet *service* routinely overstate the ...


Deal would expand broadband internet access in Albemarle  The Daily Progress

Albemarle County has entered into an agreement that will provide county members of the Central Virginia Electric Cooperative with broadband internet access ...


Gov. Northam announces plan to expand broadband internet  WJHL-TV News Channel 11

Broadband internet expansion is on the way for Virginia.


Tipmont REMC acquires Wintek, takes a step forward on broadband internet goal  Journal & Courier

WEST LAFAYETTE — Tipmont REMC has taken another large step forward in bringing broadband internet to rural Indiana residents. As of January 1, the ...


162 Million Americans Lack Regular Access To Broadband Internet, Study Finds  WBUR

A new study by Microsoft says 162 million Americans do not have access to broadband internet. That far exceeds the federal government's estimate. Advocates ...


Fredericksburg, Va., OKs Broadband Internet Expansion  Government Technology

(TNS) — The city council took more steps last week toward its goal of providing Fredericksburg with the fastest broadband Internet in Virginia. It unanimously ...


CEMC considers broadband internet for nearly 99,000 households  Clarksville Leaf Chronicle

Cumberland Electric Membership Corp., better known as CEMC, is exploring the idea of bringing broadband internet *service* to its nearly 99,000 members ...


U.S. internet speeds rose nearly 40 percent this year  Recode

Finally some good news: The internet is getting faster, especially fixed broadband internet. Broadband download speeds in the U.S. rose 35.8 percent and ...


Who has broadband internet?  amNewYork

Three of the five New York City boroughs have rates of broadband internet subscriptions that are higher than the state and national average, according to ...


Streets with UK's slowest and fastest broadband named  BBC News

A village street in Bamfurlong, Gloucestershire, has been named as the slowest for broadband internet, according to an annual survey. The study said homes on ...


Broadband internet choices limited in Knox area, but options are growing  Knoxville News Sentinel

This story has been updated with additional detail on Charter/Spectrum internet prices and *service*. In the next few months the Lenoir City Utilities Board will ...


25 Million Americans Lack Access to Broadband. Can Microsoft Help?  Digital Trends

A new report from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) says that 25 million Americans do not have access to broadband internet -- more than 19 ...


Microsoft expands broadband initiative to bring internet to 3 million people in rural communities  GeekWire

https://youtu.be/yna8bFGqNHg In metropolises like Seattle, it's hard to imagine a day without internet. Urbanites are used to getting online for just about ...


Sprint may tackle market for in-home broadband internet  FierceWireless

Over the past year, Sprint executives have repeatedly said the company does not have any plans to use 5G technology to get into the market for in-home ...


Almost half of US residents don't use broadband internet: study | TheHill  The Hill

Almost half the U.S. population does not use broadband internet, according to a new study from Microsoft researchers.


USDA: Offering new high-speed internet program for rural areas  KALB News

The USDA is offering up to $600 million in loans and grants to help build broadband infrastructure in rural America.


Ferguson addresses broadband - Valley Times-News  Valley Times-News

For residents living inside city limits, fast, reliable internet can often be taken for granted. However, in rural parts of the county and Georgia, that same internet ...


Digital Divide Is Wider Than We Think, Study Says  The New York Times

New research from Microsoft says that far fewer people have broadband internet access than government statistics have shown.


Microsoft Plans to Bring Broadband Internet to 3 Million Rural Americans  Cord Cutters News, LLC

Do you live in a rural area with limited internet options? Yesterday Microsoft announced plans to expand their wireless internet *service* to 3 million rural ...


Henderson Co. cities want input on expanding broadband internet service  WSPA.com

Three Henderson Co. municipalities are seeking public input about the need for expanded broadband internet *service*, according to Hendersonville ...


Downtown broadband project could happen in '19  The Ely Echo

by Tom Coombe A long-discussed plan to bring high-speed internet broadband *service* to Ely's downtown corridor seems a bit closer to reality.


The Internet Lives  The Wall Street Journal

Of all the anti-Trump hysterias of our age, perhaps the most absurd and extreme was the charge that last year's repeal of an Obama-era regulation would break ...


In Comcast’s hometown, the chasm between internet haves and have-nots looks intractable, new census data shows  Philly.com

Nicetown-Tioga Library manager Debra E. Johnson sees daily the lack of computers and high-speed internet access in her impoverished corner of Philadelphia: ...


Saudi telecom operators agree annual royalty fees  WSAU News

DUBAI (Reuters) - Telecommunications operators Saudi Telecom Co <7010.SE> (STC), Etihad Etisalat <7020.SE> (Mobily) and Zain Saudi Arabia <7030.


Purdue works to flip switch on rural 'Internet darkness'  Purdue Agricultural Communications

For those with broadband Internet, it often seems as if we are inundated with streaming movies, social media and the occasional entertaining cat video.


FCC offers $67 million more per year for rural broadband programs  Engadget

The Federal Communications Commission announced today additional funding to its Connect America Fund dedicated to expanding broadband internet *service* ...


Rural and Lower-Income Counties Lag Nation in Internet Subscriptions  Daily Yonder

Rural Americans and low-income counties significantly lag the rest of the nation in broadband access, according to new findings from the U.S. Census.


Internet speeds lag in Oregon's rural areas;  Bend Bulletin

Portland residents enjoy some of the nation's fastest internet speeds, but newly released Census data shows rural parts of the state continue to lag way behind.


Fiber-Optic Broadband Internet Service Starts In Nicasio  SFGate

Households and businesses at 80 locations in the west Marin County village of Nicasio are enjoying fiber-optic access to the internet for the first time thanks to a ...


Elon Musk receives FCC approval to launch over 7,500 satellites into space  Digital Trends

Nobody has ever accused SpaceX of thinking small. The FCC this week unanimously approved the company's plan to launch 7518 satellites into a low-Earth ...


Census data: Minnesota beats Wisconsin on high-speed internet access, too  Appleton Post Crescent

New data from the U.S. Census Bureau also show that poor, rural and non-white families in Wisconsin have a lower rate of fast web *service*.


Penn State study says most of Pa. lacks access to high-speed broadband | News  witf.org

(State College) -- Statewide research from Penn State finds that there's a severe lack of connectivity to high-speed broadband internet for much of Pennsylvania.


Broadband Internet Service Expanding in Avery County Through LightLeap Program  High Country Press

By Tim Gardner. Avery County is getting Broadband Internet *Service* for many parts of its 247-square mile radius and many of its 17,797 residents with ongoing ...


Native Americans On Tribal Land Are 'The Least Connected' To High-Speed Internet  NPR

Just over half of Native Americans living on American Indian reservations or other tribal lands with a computer have access to high-speed internet *service*, ...


FCC proposes doubling speed requirement for rural broadband  The Verge

The Federal Communications Commission is looking to raise the minimum broadband speed standard to 25 Mbps, more than doubling the current requirement.


The Rural Broadband Gap: After a Year of Progress, Challenges Remain  PrecisionAg

Nobody ever said farming was easy, but 2018 was a particularly difficult year for many in agriculture: trade tensions, uncooperative weather during harvest, and ...


Commission signs for grant to study broadband internet  Williamson Daily News

The Mingo County Commission approved a grant of $75000 for a study to improve broadband and internet *service* in the Gilbert area at its regular meeting ...


Internet speeds up in Oregon cities, but rural areas still lag  OregonLive.com

Superfast fiber-optics are delivering fast internet *service* throughout most of the Portland area -- but fiber's reach is poor in some rural parts of the state.


DRIVE speeding up broadband access  Sunbury Daily Item

DANVILLE — A new groundbreaking high-speed broadband internet access is expected to serve about 90 percent of Montour County's population, DRIVE ...


Green light for Petersham broadband network  Athol Daily News

By SARAH ROBERTSONStaff WriterPETERSHAM — Residents voted overwhelmingly in favor of a ballot measure giving the final green light for a town wide ...


Microsoft's Rural Broadband Plans Chugging Along  Redmond Channel Partner

Microsoft President Brad Smith recently described the company's progress with its plan to improve broadband Internet access in underserved and rural areas of ...


Lakeland may rehire broadband consultant as high-speed internet service debate gets new life  News Chief

LAKELAND — For the second time Lakeland is hiring a broadband consultant, this time to get deeper into details about building a city-owned retail internet ...


Comcast offers discounted Internet to town in Massachusetts; town says no  PhillyVoice.com

Comcast offered to bring widely-available cable broadband Internet access to a tiny Massachusetts town at, a discount. The town said no, thanks.


Rip-off broadband: Millions of people wasting money on overpriced contracts  ZDNet

Ofcom launches broadband pricing review and plans to force companies to alert customers to best deal available.


New Innovations Bringing Broadband to Native American and Rural Populations  Flathead Beacon

Nowhere is the lack of broadband Internet more pervasive than on our nation's Indian reservations. According to the latest statistics from the Federal ...


Bringing internet to the masses and investing in telecoms at Startup Battlefield Africa  TechCrunch

Despite a year-end goal of 30 percent broadband internet penetration in Nigeria, the country is unlikely to hit that target. As of 2017, internet penetration in ...


Biz Bits: Ride-sharing rental solution now in Nebraska  Lincoln Journal Star

Always wanted to be a Lyft or Uber driver but can't meet the vehicle requirements?


Poor people should get slower internet speeds, American ISPs tell FCC  The Register

Analysis ISPs should be paid to provide slower internet speeds to poor people. That's the extraordinary upshot of a meeting between an ISP industry group and ...


Government-owned broadband is costly — try these alternatives | TheHill  The Hill

It's understandable that people want better, faster and cheaper internet, but government does not do a good job operating these networks.


North Carolina Communities Draw Up Internet Service Wishlist  Government Technology

A series of meetings is being hosted to flesh out what residents of Henderson County require when it comes to their high-speed Internet connections.


USDA Launches New Program to Create High-Speed Internet e-Connectivity in Rural America - Ag Sec Sonny Perdue announced USDA is offering up to $600 mil in loans and grants to help build broadband infrastructure in rural America View as a webpage P...  Gilmer Mirror

USDA Launches New Program to Create High-Speed Internet e-Connectivity in Rural America - Ag Sec Sonny Perdue announced USDA is offering up to $600 ...


🎥 MARSHALL: Doctor's Note: Dec. 15  Hays Post

Friends,. This week the House and Senate answered farmers and ranchers call to action and passed the 2018 Farm Bill. Having the opportunity to see this bill ...


US Fixed Broadband Speeding Up—Especially for Downloads  PCMag

The latest Speedtest U.S. Fixed Broadband Performance Report from Ookla shows how the US fares—the average download speed is now 95.25 Mbps!—and ...


Latta legislation included in farm bill  The Courier

U.S. Rep. Bob Latta's Precision Agriculture Connectivity Act has been included in farm bill legislation agreed to by a congressional conference committee.


Microsoft, Native Network Team Up to Bring Broadband to Flathead Reservation  Flathead Beacon

Microsoft Corp. and Native Network, an organization that helps tribes connect with modern communications technology, are looking to provide broadband ...


High-speed internet expanding into rural areas  Herald-Whig

BOWLING GREEN, Mo. -- When too many smart devices go online at St. Clement School, the download speeds slow to a crawl. "It's never fast enough," said ...


Business, education, health care at top of mind as rural broadband expansion inches forward  Peoria Journal Star

First of two partsWhen nearly 300 Americans submitted comments this summer on the USDA's pilot plan to bring high speed broadband internet to rural America, ...


The Costly Part of Government-Owned Broadband  Mackinac Center for Public Policy

Government-led broadband projects leave taxpayers on the hook.


Broadband access not available everywhere in PA | Smart Talk  witf.org

The Federal Communications Commission estimates about 800000 Pennsylvanians lack access to Broadband. A recent Penn State study finds the number ...


Live in the Knoxville area? Here are the broadband companies, their services and costs  Knoxville News Sentinel

Six major broadband providers serve parts of Knox or adjacent counties. The News Sentinel requested *service* area maps from all six, but only two provided ...


Morgan Stanley is serious about investing in outer space and just had its first conference about it  CNBC

Morgan Stanley hosted its first "Space Summit" in New York City on Tuesday, as the firm is telling clients to pay attention to space companies. The event ...


Microsoft is teaming up with internet providers to bring connectivity to remote areas  Quartz

Many towns in Michigan's Upper Peninsula don't have reliable internet—or any at all. An old technology could help change that.


Mobile internet remains suspended for 2nd day in Kashmir  United News of India

Srinagar, Dec 16 (UNI) The mobile internet *service* of all cellular companies, including Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), remained suspended for the ...


Telemedicine demand spurs rural broadband push in Texas  Politico

The demand for telemedicine is renewing state and federal efforts to improve internet infrastructure.


Virtual schools face lack of online access in rural areas  The Sun Herald

Soaring enrollments, growing graduation classes and expansion into new buildings underscores the recent surge in popularity in online education in Alabama.


Ellsworth broadband speeds still have some catching up to do  The Ellsworth American

ELLSWORTH — Residents in Ellsworth have internet connections that are slightly faster than much of Maine but far slower than the nationwide average,


JetBlue Soars in Ski Town, USA® with New Nonstop Service Between Steamboat Springs, Colo. and Three Focus Cities  Business Wire

NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--JetBlue (NASDAQ:JBLU) today announced the start of new *service* in Steamboat Springs, Colo., with the arrival of inaugural ...


Firm wins $1.8M grant to boost broadband in Camden  The Daily Advance

Monday, December 3, 2018. CAMDEN — A Virginia-based internet *service* provider has won a $1.8 million grant to bring faster internet to Camden County, ...


State Grant Will Fund Waltham, Mass., Wi-Fi Expansion  Government Technology

(TNS) — Next year, there will be Wi-Fi in Waltham, Mass.'s public buildings and for city employees. Waltham's IT department was awarded an $185,110 grant ...


Local Banks Should Invest in Broadband Expansion Plans in Rural Areas, Report Says  Daily Yonder

Local financial institutions have monetary and business assets that can help underserved rural communities get a better connection to the internet. A federal ...


Survey seeks to determine Lampasans' level of interest in faster internet service  Lampasas Dispatch Record

Lampasas city and Economic Development Corp. officials are promoting a technology survey that would determine the level of interest in faster broadband ...


Microsoft Airband Initiative to Provide Internet to American Rural Areas  Edgy Labs

Microsoft's airband initiative could see over 3 million rural American homes receive high-speed broadband by the end of next year.


Powering the Fourth Industrial Revolution with 5G  Verizon Communications

The arrival of 5G – the next generation of wireless networks – unleashes an opportunity for smart cities to take full advantage of the Fourth Industrial Revolution.


Slog PM: Amazon Go Could Expand Into Airports, Theresa May Is Still in Power, Washington Has Fast Broadband?  TheStranger.com

Three school lockdowns because of gun: There were reports of a gun on Issaquah High School's campus. Three schools locked down in response.


Eutelsat Communications: MASMOVIL Group to Provide Satellite Broadband Services Throughout Spain via KA-SAT  Business Wire

PARIS--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Regulatory News: “This new initiative represents a significant step towards bringing Internet broadband to the entire Spanish ...


Letter: WiredWest stands ready to deliver broadband  Berkshire Eagle

To the editor: Having been involved with WiredWest since its formation in 2011, I want to add some points to Larry Parnass' Nov. 13 front-page story, "WiredWest ...


Financial Review: Telecom Italia (TI) & B Communications (BCOM)  Fairfield Current

B Communications (NASDAQ:BCOM) and Telecom Italia (NYSE:TI) are both utilities companies, but which is the superior investment? We will contrast the two ...


Congress sends massive five-year farm bill to President Trump’s desk  WREG NewsChannel 3

The House of Representatives passed the final version of a massive farm bill Wednesday, clearing a major, must-pass item from the legislative agenda before ...


What to expect from SD-WANs in 2019  Network World

In network circles, there may be no hotter topic right now than software-defined WAN (SD-WAN). Given WAN technology stood still for the better part of three ...


Five Existential Challenges Facing Elon Musk's SpaceX  Forbes

SpaceX has transformed the commercial space market, but the jury is still out on whether it has a sustainable business model. Here are five significant hurdles ...


Here’s what you missed at Startup Battlefield Lagos  TechCrunch

Yesterday TechCrunch held its first-ever event in Nigeria — our second in Sub-Saharan Africa. The day was packed with Battlefield presentations from 15 ...


Five-Year Trends Available for Median Household Income Poverty Rates and Computer and Internet Use - Five-Year Trends Available for Median Household Income Poverty Rates and Computer and Internet Use DECEMBER 06 2018 RELEASE NUMBER CB18-187 SUBS...  Gilmer Mirror

American Community Survey Releases New Data for All Communities Nationwide. DEC. 6, 2018 — Today, the U.S. Census Bureau announced the release of ...


Revealed: the streets with the worst broadband in London  Evening Standard

The streets suffering London's slowest internet were revealed today. Data compiled by comparison site uSwitch shows the disparity in web speeds across the ...


Telstra accuses NBN of charging too much for internet access  ABC News

Telstra slams the National Broadband Network for doubling the cost of internet access, but NBN Co rejects the allegations and points to improved services.


Contrasting Altice USA (ATUS) & Liberty Broadband Corp Series C (LBRDK)  Fairfield Current

Altice USA (NYSE:ATUS) and Liberty Broadband Corp Series C (NASDAQ:LBRDK) are both large-cap computer and technology companies, but which is the ...


NDP will table motion for broadband internet service throughout rural Ontario  Wawa-news.com

NDP Deputy Leader John Vanthof will be tabling a motion on Thursday to bring in broadband internet *service* to support business and growth in rural Ontario.


Liberty Global Is Oversold  Seeking Alpha

Liberty Global is undervalued by multiple metrics. The odds are good that Liberty Global's sale of businesses to Vodafone will be approved by competition ...


Reliance Jio GigaFiber: All your questions answered about high-speed broadband service  The Indian Express

Reliance JioGigaFiber will offer broadband speeds of up to 1Gbps. Here's all you need to know about the high-speed fiber-to-the-home broadband *service*.


Virgin Media, Sky and BT broadband refund - Why customers are set to get money back  Express

VIRGIN Media, Sky and BT will soon provide customers automatic compensation for broadband outages thanks to a new agreement, it has emerged.


USDA's rural broadband plan met with criticism, concerns  Daily Journal

Slow speeds, bad coverage and expensive *service* are just some of the concerns contained in nearly 300 public comments on Rural Broadband Pilot Program ...


Nigeria gained 1.89 million new Internet users in Nov  The Punch

Ife Ogunfuwa Nigeria's Mobile Network Operators gained about 1.89 million new active Internet users to reach 109 million in November, the Nigerian...


JetBlue Lands in Big Sky Country with New Flights between Bozeman, Mont. And Southern California  Business Wire

NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--JetBlue (NASDAQ:JBLU) today announced the start of new *service* in Bozeman, Mont., with the arrival of the airline's inaugural ...


Openreach and ISPs make deal on automatic compensation for shonky broadband  The INQUIRER

BT-OWNED Openreach has reached a deal with five ISPs to provide Brits with automatic compensation for shonky broadband *service*. The voluntary system, set ...


Hathway revamps its broadband plans to offer higher internet speeds with no FUP limits  India Today

Popular broadband and internet *service* providing company Hathway has overhauled its broadband plans to offer better internet speeds with no FUP limit.


Lawmakers scramble to keep up with the cutting edge  City & State

Between regulating technology giants, facilitating new kinds of transportation and keeping the executive branch in check, New York legislators have a lot on their ...


Revealed: Broadband speeds halved in Shropshire's rural areas  shropshirestar.com

Shropshire's internet users are having to put up with download speeds that are, on average, only half as fast as their neighbours in Telford.


Broadband speeds: Why is Britain such a divided nation?  Express

Broadband customers around Britain are suffering a postcode lottery when it comes to download speeds. JAMES MURRAY discovers which streets are lagging ...


Head-To-Head Contrast: Sonic Foundry (SOFO) vs. ViaSat (VSAT)  Baseball Daily News

Sonic Foundry (NASDAQ:SOFO) and ViaSat (NASDAQ:VSAT) are both computer and technology companies, but which is the superior investment? We will ...


home | site map
© 2007